The National Attorneys General Training & Research Institute

The National Attorneys General Training & Research Institute The National Attorneys General Training & Research Institute

Human Trafficking Newsletter June 2018

The following is a compendium of news reports over the last month that may be of interest to our AG offices that are dealing with state-focused human trafficking issues. Neither the National Association of Attorneys General nor the National Attorneys General Training & Research Institute expresses a view as to the accuracy of news accounts, nor as to the position expounded by the authors of the hyperlinked articles.

In the Courts


Kendra Ross, a young woman who, from the age of 11, was labor trafficked by a cult run by Royall Jenkins, was awarded $8 million. Jenkins was a member of the National of Islam until a vision instructed him that he was “Allah on Earth,” after which he established the United Nation of Islam. After the plaintiff escaped the cult, the name was changed to the Value Creators. The decision awarding Ross a default judgment goes into detail regarding Ross’s victimization as she was forced to work without pay as a maid, cook, and childcare provider in Kansas City, Kansas; Atlanta; Dayton, Ohio, Newark, New Jersey; and New York City. Ross v. Royall Jenkins et al., No. 17-2547-DDC-JTC (D. Kan. May 23, 2018).

U.S. District Judge Timothy Savage of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania ruled that an insurance company had no obligation to defend or indemnify its insured, a local motel, against allegations in a lawsuit that it turned a blind eye to sex trafficking of a minor. Nautilus Insurance Co. v. motel Management Services, Inc., et al., No. 2:17-cv-04491-TJS (May 24, 2018).

Four female athletes have filed a federal lawsuit against the U.S. Olympic Committee and USA Taekwondo, accusing them of sex trafficking. They claim that both organizations sent them to competitions internationally with coaches and other athletes known to be sexual predators.


Arthur Coleman’s appeal of his 50-year sentence for trafficking a 13-year old has been upheld. Coleman challenged his conviction for persuading a minor from home for prostitution, arguing that the child was already a runaway from her home and had been working as a prostitute when he met her through social media. The court held that the wording of the trafficking statute includes the victimization of children who have been victims of past sexual exploitation. Coleman v. State, No. 673 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. Apr. 26, 2018).

The Minnesota Court of Appeals held that the sentence given Rashad Ramon Ivy on the jury’s finding of guilty to multiple charges of human trafficking was unlawfully enhanced under state law by the district court. While disagreeing with the appellate court’s decision, the sentencing judge reduced his sentence from 58 to 48 years in prison. State v. Ivy, No. 16-1339 (Minn. Ct. App. Sept. 25, 2017).



A new law recently signed by Alabama Governor Kay Ivey, HB 305, includes a provision that requires a criminal history check on applicants that are applying for a new or a renewal of a massage license and establishes a method for an individual to file a complaint of impropriety by a licensee, establishment, or person. The board could then initiate an administrative proceeding, upon probable cause, and take a number of steps to suspend, revoke, or refuse to issue a new or renewed license. HB 305 also contains new provisions regarding the bringing of a civil suit by a human trafficking victim and establishes that civil suits brought by the attorney general shall have no limitation period.

Colorado legislators passed HB 18-1200. It criminalizes using a computer to engage in prostitution of a minor and makes other changes to the state’s cybercrime statute.

Act 22-337 was passed by the DC Council. It would allow victims of human trafficking to be protected by an address confidentiality program.

The Illinois legislature has passed HB 5494 which authorizes the sealing of a criminal record of a trafficking victim if the offense for which he was convicted was a direct result of human trafficking. It awaits the governor’s signature.

SB 281 was passed by the Kansas legislature and was signed by Governor Jeff Colyer. It provides victims of human trafficking the right to apply for a protection order.

Two bills targeting sexual exploitation passed the Louisiana legislature. HB 830 requires the operator of a sexually oriented business to require a prospective employee to submit in writing the answers to specific questions that are designed to ensure that the person seeking employment is not a trafficking victim. The operator must also verify the age of the applicant. SB 335 increases the fine for both those found guilty of soliciting prostitutes and those paying for sex. A quarter of the fines collected would go to the law enforcement agency making the arrest and another quarter would go to the district attorney’s office to pay for services to educate offenders and help prostitution victims.

Maine legislators overrode the Governor’s veto of LD 1740. That bill establishes the crimes of criminal forced labor and aggravated criminal labor in Maine.

In New Hampshire, Governor John Sununu signed HB 1683 into law. It adds children who are human trafficking victims to the definition of an abused child.

The South Carolina legislature passed, and Governor Henry McMaster signed into law, H3329. It increases the penalty for those convicted of sex trafficking a minor.

A number of states are looking into the issue of forced marriage as it relates to human trafficking. Vermont’s legislature recently passed, and Governor Phil Scott signed, H.603 that covers when marriages can be annulled. An annulment can now be obtained when the consent of the parties has been obtained by threats of force or other forms of coercion or deception.

State Investigations/Arrests/Prosecution


May 24, 2018: A Cullman County grand jury indicted a local attorney, Randy Allan Hames, 76, on multiple counts of human trafficking and related offenses. He had been arrested three times in February and March on alleged crimes involving three women. He was indicted on one count of first-degree human trafficking, two counts of second-degree human trafficking, two counts of sexual extortion, two counts of soliciting prostitution and two counts of second-degree stalking. The charges stem from his allegedly forcing women to have sex with him in exchange for paying rent at a trailer park he owned.

May 17, 2018: Tuscaloosa Police arrested Shirley Sparks, 65, general manager of a local motel, and charged her with two counts of second degree human trafficking. Authorities believe that she has been involved in this activity for at least three years and financially benefitted from her participation.


May 22, 2018: In a crime that an Alameda County prosecutor called “one of the most horrendous cases in recent” county history, Albert Rich was found guilty on 13 felony counts and multiple enhancement clauses after one day of jury deliberations. He trafficked a minor for commercial purposes and raped, sodomized, kidnapped, tortured, and assaulted three young women in Oakland last year. Two co-defendants were arrested with Rich; one of the women pled no contest to three counts of human trafficking and two counts of pimping in a deal with prosecutors for a light prison sentence in return for her testimony against Rich. Charges against the other co-defendant were dismissed.

May 20, 2018: Two individuals were arrested on suspicion of human trafficking and related charges in Riverside. Taiwan Orran Reed, 34, and Rickiya Ronice Fulcher, 24, were taken into custody on separate charges of human trafficking, pimping, and procuring a person for prostitution.

May 18, 2018: The Los Angeles Regional Human Trafficking Task Force, assisted by deputies from the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, carried out a human trafficking operation in Compton. Two teenage girls were rescued and twenty-seven other individuals were arrested. Seventeen men and nine women allegedly solicited undercover sheriff’s deputies for sex acts and one male minor was detained on a felony pandering charge after he allegedly tried to recruit an undercover deputy to work for him as a prostitute.

May 16, 2018: Following a three-month investigation by Pittsburg police, authorities began searching for Hillario Martinez, 32, who was charged with numerous felony counts, including human trafficking and kidnapping. He was arrested in early May following a police chase. During the investigation, police identified five human trafficking victims, including one who was a minor.

May 15, 2018: Anthony Guillebeau, 28, was sentenced to 10 years in a plea deal where he agreed to plead guilty to a pimping charge. His co-defendant was sentenced to a year in jail. They were charged with kidnapping and human trafficking a victim that Guillebeau met on social media. She was allegedly forced to walk a track in Richmond. When she was not attracting enough buyers, she told investigators that Guillebeau strangled and threatened to kill her. She escaped from the car and ran to a passer-by asking for help. He allowed her in the car, but Guillebeau appeared and dragged her out by the foot, telling her that, if he ever saw her again, he would kill her. At the preliminary hearing, the victim broke down and was unable to continue testifying.

May 13, 2018: Madera police caught two men, Rudy Lopez and Timmon Crenshaw, pimping women and arrested them on sex trafficking charges.

May 7, 2018: A seven-month investigation led to the arrest of Jeremiah Bessolo-Marsh, 21, on charges of human trafficking of a minor for commercial sex and related charges. Officials in the Winters Police Department received a report of a runaway 16-year old girl. With the assistance of the Yolo County District Attorney’s Office, the officers learned that the minor was being used for prostitution and for distributing child pornography for the benefit of Bessolo-Marsh.

May 4, 2018: Deandre Lewis was sentenced to life plus at least 180 years after he was convicted of torture, rape, and human trafficking in Contra Costa County. Additional evidence in the trial tied him to extortion, elder abuse, and stealing guns. The jury hung on one charge: he had been charged with murder on the shooting death of a woman who allegedly was forced to commit suicide by Lewis.


May 31, 2018: Jorge Reyes, 27, from Brighton, was sentenced to 24 years in prison for soliciting child prostitutes by using Facebook to contact them. He had access to a female acquaintance’s Facebook page and, posing as the female, targeted 15 to 21 years old for house cleaning. He then would follow up asking if they would be willing to clean wearing little or no clothing and would be paid more if they would engage in sex acts.


May 30, 2018: Three men were arrested in West Palm Beach on human trafficking charges. They allegedly worked as doormen, collection money from customers at multiple locations throughout the city. Two of the men, Bartolo Marzariegos-Chay, 41, and Octavio Diaz-Mendez, 20, are subject to detention by U.S. ICE officials. They were both previously deported twice. The third man, Edictor Rosman Perez-Morales, 33, is an ICE fugitive suspected of being in the country illegally.

May 24, 2018: Three men have been arrested and charged with human trafficking in Palm Beach. Floyd “Fish Grease” Lopez was allegedly the leader of the group who forced four women to work as prostitutes and collected the money from the women. Demetrius “Jive” Wells and Nicholas “Newsky” Sukie guarded the women at a Super 8 motel, ensuring they did not leave.

May 10, 2018: Jacksonville detectives began an investigation in early April after a female minor reported to officers that she was a victim of sex trafficking. Officers arrested Antonio Griffin, 26, from Savannah, on sex trafficking of a minor charges. They recovered phone records and texts confirming the victim’s story.

Apr. 30, 2018: A Marion County jury convicted Ryan Gemelle Poole, 33, of two counts of human trafficking and one count each of living off earnings of a prostitute, unlawful use of two-way communication device to facilitate a felony, and sexual battery. He was sentenced to 30 years in state prison.


May 21, 2018: A missing 16-year old girl from Atlanta was found in the home of Matthew Humphries, 31, by Forsyth County Sheriff’s Office. After the child was interviewed, Humphries was taken into custody and is facing sex trafficking charges.

May 12, 2018: Two officers with the Sandy Springs police department were involved in a shooting of a suspect, Jaquan Barnes, 22, who was wanted on attempted murder and probation violation for burglary charges of South Carolina. During the investigation by Georgia Bureau of Investigation officials, officers observed Barnes escorting a minor into a motel for sexually explicit conduct. When officers approached the car in which Barnes was sitting, he moved the car, hitting two officers. After a round fired by police struck Barnes, he was taken into custody. He has been charged with human trafficking, aggravated assault on a police officer, felony obstruction, possession of a firearm by a convicted felon, and possession of a firearm during the commission of a crime.


May 15, 2018: A Des Moines man has been charged with sex trafficking for trying to force a woman into prostitution. According to Altoona police, Michael Nelson, 32, encountered a woman at an Altoona truck stop and fired a gun into the air when she said she didn’t want to solicit sex. After the gun was fired, she got into the car and Nelson took her to the Flying J where the prospective John called police. Nelson was charged with human trafficking, illegal carrying of a weapon, and operating a vehicle while intoxicated.


May 25, 2018: Wichita police set up a sex trafficking sting, targeting demand. They arrested 15 individuals.


May 17, 2018: In London, police arrested Rahul Priyakart Patel, 31, on promoting human trafficking with a minor and with unlawful use of electronic means originating or received within Kentucky to induce a minor to engage in sexual or other prohibited activities. He allegedly agreed to exchange cash for sex with a minor.

May 6, 2018: An undercover operation that targeted those seeking sex with juveniles was conducted during Derby week-end. Undercover officers posted ads online. Seven individuals were arrested in the undercover operation and charged with human trafficking.

May 4, 2018: In Newport, Tim Nolan, a former Kentucky district court judge has been sentenced to 20 years in prison on his pleading guilty to human trafficking and related crimes. Seven of the 19 victims, to whom he gave opioids for sex acts, were under 16 years of age.


May 15, 2018: Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s officers arrested Diana Viator, 31, after an 18-year old texted her mother asking for help. The teen told authorities she had met Viator and another man at a Baton Rouge hotel and that they forced her into prostitution and provided her drugs. In a later television interview with the teen’s mother, it was revealed that the teen thought she was being hired to be a nanny for Viator’s children.


May 9, 2018: Delacy Morris received concurrent life sentences following his conviction on several human trafficking charges, including trafficking a person under 18 for sexual servitude and three counts each of rape, incest, and indecent assault and battery, in Suffolk Superior Court. He raped and trafficked a young relative.

May 7, 2018: Attorney General Maura Healey announced that a Rhode Island cleaning company and two Massachusetts residents were indicted by a Statewide Grand Jury on labor trafficking and associated charges. Fernando Roland, 60, was charged with 12 counts of labor trafficking along with assault, willful failure to pay minimum wage, and willful failure to pay overtime charges. His live-in girlfriend, Lisa Matthews, was also indicted on one count of conspiracy to traffic persons for forced services. The company, Martins Maintenance, Inc., was indicted on 7 counts of labor trafficking and associated counts of failure to pay minimum wage and failure to pay overtime. The investigation revealed the Roland retained the passport of a woman he had recruited from abroad, threatened her, and physically assaulted her. Another female victim in the case was also allegedly threatened and not paid her lawful wages.

May 4, 2018: The strangulation death of Reina Rodriguez, 19, in Braintree last year has led to the arrest of Juana Rivera who has been charged with murder, human trafficking, unarmed robbery, kidnapping, and conspiracy. According to law enforcement authorities, Rivera had recruited Rodriguez into sex work and kept the proceeds from the work. However, several witnesses reported that, after the victim moved in with Rivera’s ex-boyfriend, Rivera fought with the victim and threatened to kill her. Two men, Kenyonte Galmore and Kentavious Coleman are also facing murder, kidnapping, robbery, and conspiracy charges in connection with Rodriguez’s death. They are in Mississippi awaiting extradition. McLeod is also facing charges in connection with human trafficking and deriving support from prostitution.


May 15, 2018: Two men and a woman have been arrested and charged with multiple felonies, including human trafficking, kidnapping, and torture. The victim, a woman who was separated from her husband, began living with a friend and then with another friend who was subsequently evicted. The two then moved into a house in Flint owned by Darius Thames, 41, who was living there with his girlfriend, Emily Draheim, 27, and another individual, Trey Stewart, 25. The victim continued to live there after her friend moved out. At one point, she became involved in an altercation with Draheim; Thames allegedly beat her and then tortured her by stripping her, duct taping her to the floor, further beating her and threatening her with a gun to her head. She was allegedly held against her will for about six days and forced to have sex with multiple individuals. She then escaped to a local “gentlemen’s club” where an employee called police.

May 9, 2018: Ambrosia Clemons, 37, and Kearita Ladd, 24, have been sentenced for their roles in the forced prostitution and labor trafficking of a 13-year old. The child had left a behavioral health treatment center in Chicago and met her abusers at a beauty supply store in Lansing. She was taken to a hotel where she was forced to have sex with the couple, was prostituted to more than 10 men, and made to dance at three area strip clubs. When she tried to escape, she was hit and chocked. The teen was able to contact her mother and a former teacher while Clemons was out of the apartment shopping for stripper clothes. Clemons received a sentence of 13 years in prison on his plea of guilty to aggravated involuntary sexual servitude of a minor. Ladd received a sentence of 6 years on her plea to one count of trafficking for labor/benefits.


May 22, 2018: In Hennepin County, one of the 82 individuals apprehended during the Super Bowl for suspected sex trafficking has pled guilty. Justin Beard, 33, responded to a Craigslist ad and arrived at a Minnetonka apartment expecting sex with a 15-year old girl and a 13-year old boy. Beard believed the ad was posted by the children’s father.

May 11, 2018: Waite Park police raided a massage parlor in connection with a sex trafficking investigation. Yanhang Lin, 33, was arrested on second degree sex trafficking and promoting prostitution charges.


May 2, 2018: A routine traffic stop in Oxford has led to the arrest by federal officials of Edward Daniels, 38. Police stopped the car after they determined that the car’s license plate was registered to another car. Two women in the back seat of the car, one of them under 18, were questioned. They claimed that Daniels was forcing them to prostitute themselves.


May 28, 2018: The Douglas County Sheriff’s Office cooperated with federal and state law enforcement agencies around the country that led to arrests of fifteen women in connection with a nation-wide human trafficking operation. The year-long investigation, dubbed Operation Extended Stay, targeted ads for erotic massage and escort services. Two to three million dollars of assets were seized during the operation.

New Mexico

May 3, 2018: Special agents with the New Mexico Office of the Attorney General arrested James Stewart, 37, of Albuquerque. Officials allege that he was prostituting his 7-year-old daughter in exchange for drugs. A tip came to officials from a school counselor who had been trained to spot signs of trafficking and child abuse.

New York

May 22, 2018: Queens District Attorney Richard Brown reported that Reagan “Flex” Conception pled guilty to sex trafficking for pimping out a 14-year old runaway for several months in the fall of 2016. Conception was arraigned on a 76-count indictment of sex trafficking, rape, kidnapping, criminal sexual acts, compelling prostitution, promoting prostitution, assault, and endangering the welfare of a child. By pleading guilty to the sex trafficking charge, he no longer faces up to 25 years in prison.

North Carolina

May 6, 2018: Pitt County officials set up a driver’s license check point. When a car driven by Erica Shante Reviere, 32, drove through the check point, officials found she had no valid driver’s license. Further investigation revealed that she had arrest warrants from both North and South Carolina for human trafficking of a child and promoting prostitution of a minor. Pitt County deputies took her into custody.

May 4, 2018: A search warrant was executed on Stoney Creek Spa and Skin Care in Greensboro and Lixiang Chen, 52, was arrested and charged with two felony counts of promoting prostitution and one count of conducting a continuing criminal enterprise. Investigators found two Chinese nationals who were forced to live in the back of the spa.


May 19, 2018: Ten individuals were arrested in a sting conducted by the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI) with the assistance of the Cookeville police. Two female TBI agents posted on the “women seeking men” section of the website in February. Ten men showed up planning to engage in sex with a girl they believed to be underage. Those arrested range in age from 18 to 51 and have been charged with patronizing prostitution which has the same penalty as engaging in sex trafficking.

Apr. 30, 2018: Charles Denton, Shelandia Pugh, and Briane Ball are facing multiple counts of sex trafficking after an investigation which was launched after a 15-year old girl was reported missing from Dekalb County. An undercover detective followed up on a ad and found two girls in a hotel room in Nashville with Pugh. Pugh admitted she created the girls’ Backpage accounts.


May 16, 2018: In an operation focusing on demand, Houston police and charged 32 men for solicitation of prostitution and a woman for compelling prostitution. Houston police published the suspects’ photos to raise awareness of human trafficking among the citizenry.

May 15, 2018: In Smith County, Crystal Leshae Lilly, 26, pled guilty to second-degree human trafficking for purposes of prostitution charge. She had testified in her husband’s bench trial in April in which Dekenndrick Lekeith Ross, 41, was found guilty on human trafficking charges and sentenced to life in prison. The judge commented that he did not want to accept Lilly’s plea agreement because he felt she was as guilty as her husband. In the end, however, the judge sentenced Lilly to three years in prison. A law enforcement officer suggested that Lilly herself had been a sex trafficking victim of her husband.

May 9, 2018: A McLennan County grand jury indicted Eddie Leon Williams, 37, on four counts of trafficking of persons. The victim, when detained by sheriff’s officers, expressed concern for her safety, alleging that Williams physically assaulted her and broke another woman’s jaw. The arrest of William occurred when officials saw him drive the victim to an address where she had agreed to perform sex acts.


May 18, 2018: In Salem, Shawn Paul Paisley, 48, was sentenced to eight years in prison on his plea to one count of conspiracy to commit sex trafficking. A Franklin County deputy responded to a Craigslist advertisement posted by Paisley, posing as a 15-year old female. Paisley tried to convince the “girl” to join his escort services and made arrangements to meet her. He was arrested when he drove to Franklin County to meet his new “friend.”

May 1, 2018: Two individuals have been charged with sex trafficking in connection with the investigation into a sex trafficking ring in Prince William County. One victim was lured to the northern Virginia area by Jovan Hibberts and then allegedly turned over to Amber McMains who facilitated trafficking the victim in the Manassas area.


May 29, 2018: In Pierce County, Christopher Russell Fitzpatrick, 39, and Maria Ann Counts, have been arrested and charged with sex trafficking and associated offenses. After his arrest, Fitzpatrick tried to hang himself. Authorities found him and took him to the hospital where he is expected to recover. The couple were arrested in connection with a missing 17-year old. A companion of the minor identified Fitzpatrick and Counts as individuals with whom the missing child was seen. Counts admitted that Fitzpatrick was sex trafficking the child, but she has not yet been found.


May 25, 2018: Oshkosh police arrested a 26-year old man on suspicion of trafficking an adult woman out of a home. Evidence obtained from a storage unit found 155 grams of cocaine and $4,600 tied to the investigation.

Other Items of Interest

In a 13-country sweep by Interpol, 350 possible victims of sexual exploitation and forced labor were found and 22 people arrested. The operation was coordinated by Barbados and funded by Canada. About 500 police were involved in coordinated raids in Brazil, Venezuela, Jamaica, and 10 other countries in the Caribbean.

Representatives of the Indiana Attorney General’s Office and a state legislature have unveiled a new training plan for convenience stores workers across the state on indications of human trafficking. More than 500 workers have already been trained.

Kentucky Attorney General Andy Beshear urged Kentuckians and Derby-goers to be alert and report any signs of human trafficking. Gen. Beshear noted that more than 100 potential victims of trafficking were reported in the state last year and that large sports events are used as a venue to increase their profits.

Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey and Boston Mayor Martin J. Walsh announced an innovative partnership with business and institutional leaders to reduce the demand for sex trafficking. The partnership has formed Employers Against Sex Trafficking (EAST) and has announced that its members have adopted a zero-tolerance policies on sex buying by their employees. Research has shown that sex buyers often look for purchasing opportunities during business hours or through use of company equipment.

New Mexico Attorney General Hector Balderas announced that his office plans to increase the training it provides schools and medical personnel in ways to identify signs of child abuse and human trafficking. Gen. Balderas also announced that his office is expanding its investigation on how technology is used to distribute child pornography and has sent a letter to Giganews requiring it to report any individuals engaging in the sharing of images and a list of IP addresses.

Aequitas is joining with the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the Bureau of Justice Assistance to offer a webinar on prosecuting human trafficking cases without a victim.

William Whitely, 61, a 27-year veteran of the Chicago police, pled guilty to one count of sex trafficking of a minor in federal court. He acknowledged paying a 14-year old girl for each of multiple sex acts with her in the summer of 2015. He also admitted paying for sex many times with three other underage girls from 2012 through 2016.

One of three area Toledo pastors accused of being involved in a child sex trafficking scheme pled guilty to conspiracy to sex traffic minors, obstructing an investigation, and two counts of sex trafficking of children. Kenneth Butler, 38, will be sentenced to 17 ½ years in prison as part of a plea agreement in September. Butler was formerly the pastor of the Detroit-based Kingdom Encounter Worship Center.

Isaiah McCoy, who was found not guilty at a retrial five years after being convicted of murder and sentenced to death, has been arrested in Hawaii and charged federally with seven counts of sex trafficking. After his release from prison, he became a highly sought out and engaging speaker before lawyers’ associations and death-penalty groups.

In a case reported in the September 2017 issue of the Human Trafficking Newsletter, Pisanu Sukhtipyaroge, 71, of Maplewood, Minnesota, pled guilty to visa fraud in federal court. He helped a teenager obtain an F-1 student visa and then trafficked him in his restaurant. Sukhtipyaroge is also facing charges of labor trafficking and criminal sexual conduct in Anoka County.

An article in the Economist details information on software developed and being developed to help detect human trafficking.

A four-part series titled “Slavery in Suburbia” , focused on trafficking in Westchester County, New York, was shown on the local news station News 12. The series segments were: Part 1: Sex Trafficking of Children Flourishing in the Hudson Valley; Part 2: Victim Describes Live as an Underground Sex Slave; Part 3: Woman Recounts Job Opportunity Turning into Slavery; Part 4: Sex Trade Thrives Online.

Bradley Miles, CEO of Polaris, authored an op-ed that discusses how protecting the identities of the actual owners of businesses facilitates trafficking, particularly in the illegal massage business.

In Our Backyard, a nonprofit that works against human trafficking, is in the forefront of training convenience stores through its CSAT (Convenience Stores Against Trafficking) program. CSAT provides training to employees to understand the indicators of human trafficking and proper response protocols.

The International Civil Aviation Organization-Office of the United National High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCR-OHCHR) released Guidelines for Training Cabin Crew on Identifying and Responding to Trafficking in Persons.

Research conducted by the Field Center for Children’s Policy, Practice & Research and commissioned by Covenant House International found that 20 percent of homeless youth were victims of human trafficking. An additional 14 percent engaged in survival sex. Ninety-five percent of sex trafficking victims reported a history of child abuse or neglect.

A recent article in the Journal of Psychiatric Practice surveyed articles from various databases and identified an integrated and targeted approach to care for the medical and psychological needs of victims of human trafficking. The article emphasized the need for psychiatric consultation and care for victims.

Judy McKee is the Editor of Human Trafficking Newsletter and may be reached at 202-326-6044. The Human Trafficking Newsletter is a publication of the National Association of Attorneys General. Any use and/or copies of this newsletter in whole or part must include the customary bibliographic citation. NAAG retains copyright and all other intellectual property rights in the material presented in this publication. For content submissions or to contact the editor directly, please e-mail

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