On March 18, 1997, Shell and Texaco entered an agreement to form a joint venture to combine all of their assets in the Western U.S., excluding crude oil production. The Plaintiff States sought to enjoin Texaco and Shell from entering the joint venture, which they alleged would substantially reduce competition in the sales of gasoline at the wholesale and retail levels. In order to allow for the joint venture, Shell and Texaco agreed to divest certain assets within the Plaintiff States and agreed to pay the Plaintiff States’ costs and attorneys fees. California filed a separate cause of action in 1998, seeking to enjoin the merger. In order to permit the merger, Shell and Texaco agreed to divest certain assets in California and they agreed to pay $337,500 in costs of the investigation and attorneys fees.